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H139
Open Channel Hydraulics II Critical & Non-uniform Flow

Harlan H. Bengtson, Ph.D., PE

Open channel flow occurs whenever the flowing liquid has a free surface at atmospheric pressure. For example, this may be in a natural river channel, in a manmade concrete channel for transporting wastewater, or in a closed conduit, such as a storm sewer, which is flowing partially full. The driving force for open channel flow must be gravity, since the flow, which is open to the atmosphere, cannot be pressurized. In contrast, the primary driving force for flow in pressurized, closed conduit flow is usually pressure. In this course, the parameter called specific energy will be used to introduce the concepts of critical, subcritical, and supercritical flow. Various calculations related to critical, subcritical and supercritical flow conditions will be presented. The hydraulic jump as an example of rapidly varied non-uniform flow will be discussed. The thirteen possible types of gradually varied non-uniform flow surface profiles will be presented and discussed. Also, the procedure and equations for step-wise calculation of gradually varied non-uniform surface profiles will be presented and illustrated with examples.

This course includes a multiple-choice quiz at the end, which is designed to enhance the understanding of the course materials.


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