Retaining and Flood Walls
Course Outline
This course provides engineers and contractors with guidance for the safe design and economical construction of retaining and flood walls based on the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Engineer Manual on Retaining and Flood Walls. This manual is intended primarily for retaining walls which will be subjected to hydraulic loadings such as flowing water, submergence, wave action, and spray, exposure to chemically contaminated atmosphere, and/or severe climatic conditions.
Retaining walls are defined as any wall that restrains material to maintain a difference in elevation. A flood wall is defined as any wall having as its principal function the prevention of flooding of adjacent land. This course describes procedures for the design of retaining and flood walls on shallow foundations, i.e., bearing directly on rock or soil. A flood wall is treated as a special case of a retaining wall. Unless specifically noted, the guidance herein applies to both retaining and flood walls. Both geotechnical and structural aspects of wall design are included. Coordination between geotechnical engineers, structural engineers, and geologists in the design of retaining and flood walls is essential.This course includes a multiple-choice quiz at the end, which is designed to enhance the understanding of course materials.
Learning Objectives
At
the conclusion of this course, the student will:
Course Content
The purpose of this course is to provide design guidelines and criteria for design of retaining walls and flood walls. You will be directed to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' website to study Engineering and Design - Retaining and Flood Walls (Engineer Manual EM 1110-2-2502, 1989 edition, 227 pages excluding Appendices, PDF file format), which discusses both geotechnical and structural aspects of wall design, such as structural stability, foundation analysis, and structural design and details.
The following contains the outline of the Engineer Manual EM 1110-2-2502:
Retaining and Flood Walls
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
Purpose
Applicability
References and Bibliography
Terms
Scope
CHAPTER 2. GENERAL DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS
Section I. Types of Retaining Walls
Common Types of Retaining Walls
Gravity Concrete Wall
Cantilever Reinforced Concrete Wall
Alternate Types of Retaining Walls
Section II. Types of Flood Walls
Common Types of Flood Walls
Cantilever T-Type Wall
Cantilever I-Type Wall
Other Types of Flood Walls
Section III. Differences
Between Retaining and Flood Walls
Purpose of Walls
Seepage and Leakage Control Requirements
Wall Stability
Special Flood Wall Monoliths
Design Philosophy
Stability Considerations
Section IV. Coordination Between Disciplines
Engineering Team
Section V. Geotechnical Investigations
Planning the Investigation
Foundation Exploration and Site
Characterization
Testing of Foundation Materials
In Situ Testing of Foundation Materials
Backfill Materials
Design Strength Selection
CHAPTER 3. FORCES ON
WALLS
Section I. Introduction
General
Limit-Equilibrium Analysis
Relationship of Forces to Sliding Analysis
Section II. Earth Pressures and Forces
Cohesionless Materials
Cohesive Materials
Pressures in Soil-Water Systems
Design Earth Pressures and Forces, Driving Side
Design Earth Pressures and Forces, Resisting Side
Design Earth Pressures and Forces on the Base
At-Rest Earth Pressure Equations
Strength Mobilization Factor
Earth Force Calculation, Coulomb’s Equations
Earth Force Calculation, General Wedge Method
Earth Pressure Calculations Including Wall Friction
Distribution of Horizontal Earth Pressure
Surcharge Effects
Earth Pressures Due to Compaction
Section III. Water Pressures
Pressure Calculations
Seepage Analysis by Line-of-Creep Method
Seepage Analysis by Method of Fragments
Seepage Analysis by the Finite Element Method
Uplift Calculations for Rock Foundations
Effect of Drains
Surge and Wave Loads
Section IV. Supplemental Forces
Wind Load
Earthquake Forces
CHAPTER 4. STRUCTURE
STABILITY
Scope
Section I. Loading
Conditions
Representative Loading Conditions
Retaining Walls
Inland Flood Walls
Coastal Flood Walls
Section II. Stability Considerations
General Requirements
Stability Criteria
Section III. Overturning Stability
Resultant Location
Overturning Stability Criteria
Section IV. Structure Sliding Stability
Overview of Sliding Stability Analysis
Sliding Factor of Safety
Assumptions and Simplifications
General Wedge Equation
Slip-Plane Angle
Single Wedge Analysis
Multiple Wedge Analysis
Sliding Stability Criteria
Design Considerations
Section V. Bearing Capacity Analysis
General Computations
Inadequate Bearing Capacity
Bearing Capacity Criteria
Section VI. Summary of Design Procedures
Design Procedures
CHAPTER 5. FOUNDATION
ANALYSES
Section I. Bearing Capacity of Wall Foundations
Analysis Principles and Methods
General Bearing Capacity Equation
Bearing Capacity Factors
Embedment Factors
Inclination Factors
Base Tilt Factors
Ground Slope Factors
Effective Overburden Pressure
Combination of Factors
Example
Section II. Other Considerations
Settlement
Deep-Seated Sliding
Liquefaction Susceptibility
CHAPTER 6. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION DETAILS AND CAUSES OF UNSATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE
Foundation Preparation
Concrete Mixture Proportions
Constructability
Joints
Soil Backfill
Drainage
Causes of Unsatisfactory Performance
CHAPTER 7. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
FOR FLOOD WALLS
Section I. General Characteristics
Introduction
Rationale for Loading Cases
Section II. Seepage Control
General Considerations
Underseepage Control
Section III. Foundation Considerations
Base Types
Horizontal Water and Earth Loads on Keys
Unsuitable Foundation Material and Bank
Stability
Scour Protection
Section IV. Types of Monoliths
Change-of-Alignment Monoliths
Closure and Abutment Monoliths
Drainage Structure Monoliths
Transition Sections Between Flood Walls and
Levees
Section V. Water Stops and Joints
Water Stops
Contraction and Expansion Joints
Section VI. Site Considerations
Adjacent Structures and Rights-of-Way
Architectural and Landscaping Considerations
Section VII. Instrumentation
General and Specific Considerations
Types of Instrumentation
Section VIII. Operation and Maintenance Manual Requirements
General Coverage
Section IX. Review of Existing Flood Walls
Inspection
Repair Measures
CHAPTER 8. CONCRETE GRAVITY
WALLS
General Factors
Foundation Investigation
Materials
Design
CHAPTER 9. CANTILEVER
REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS
General Characteristics
Foundation Investigation
Materials
Reinforcement Cover
Load Cases
Structural Stability
Structural Design
Reinforced Concrete Design
Foundation Analyses
CHAPTER 10. ALTERNATE
TYPES OF RETAINING WALLS
Section I. Introduction
Classes of Retaining Walls
Alternate Types of Retaining Walls
Section II. Mechanically Stabilized Backfill Systems
General Background
Available Systems
Advantages and Disadvantages
Cost Considerations
Mechanisms and Behavior
Materials
Design Considerations
Construction Considerations
Instrumentation and Monitoring
Maintenance and Repair
Section III. Precast Concrete Modular Systems
Background
Basic Components
Advantages and Disadvantages
Design Considerations
Construction Considerations
Instrumentation and Monitoring
Maintenance and Repair
APPENDIX A. REFERENCES
APPENDIX B. BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX C. NOTATION FOR CHAPTERS 3, 4, and 5
APPENDIX D. NOTATION FOR CHAPTER 9
APPENDIX E. COMPARISON OF DANISH CODE AND JAKY EQUATIONS FOR AT-REST COEFFICIENT
WITH COULOMB COEFFICIENT FOUND USING REDUCED SHEAR STRENGTH PARAMETER f d
APPENDIX F. DERIVATION OF GENERAL WEDGE EQUATION FOR SINGLE WEDGE ANALYSIS (EQUATION
3-23)
APPENDIX G. DERIVATION OF EQUATIONS FOR CRITICAL SLIP-PLANE ANGLE (a) FOR DRIVING
AND RESISTING WEDGES
APPENDIX H. DERIVATION OF PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS FOR SOLUTION OF LATERAL EARTH
PRESSURE PROBLEMS
APPENDIX I. DERIVATION OF EQUATION FOR DEPTH OF CRACK d c IN COHESIVE SOIL
APPENDIX J. LATERAL PRESSURES DUE TO COMPACTION
APPENDIX K. DERIVATION OF VERTICAL SHEAR FORCE FOR UPWARD SLOPING BACKFILL
APPENDIX L. DERIVATION OF GENERAL WEDGE EQUATION FOR MULTIPLE WEDGE ANALYSIS
APPENDIX M. LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE COMPUTATIONS, EXAMPLES
APPENDIX N. STABILITY, BEARING CAPACITY, AND REINFORCEMENT COMPUTATIONS, EXAMPLES
APPENDIX O. COMPUTER PROGRAM ABSTRACTS FOR REFERENCED PROGRAMS
GLOSSARY Glossary
Once you finish studying the above course content you need to take a quiz to obtain the PDH credits.